9th Ohio Infantry

 9th Ohio Infantry Bibliography


Constantin Grebner, “We Were the Ninth”: A History of the Ninth Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry, April 17, 1861 to June 7, 1864, trans. and ed. Frederic Trautmann (Kent, Ohio: Kent State Univ. Press, 1987). Reprinted in paperback edition 2009.

Kenneth A. Hafendorfer, Mill Springs: Campaign and Battle of Mill Springs, Kentucky, January 19, 1862 (KH Press, 2001)

Barnett, James. "Crime and No Punishment: The Death of Robert L. McCook." Cincinnati Historical Society Bulletin 22 (January 1964): 29-37.

Starr, Stephen Z. "Camp Dennison, 1861-1865." Bulletin of the Historical and Philosophical Society of Ohio 19 (July 1961): 166-190.

Wittke, Carl, "The 9th Ohio Volunteers." Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications" 35 (1926) 402–17.

German Americans in the Civil War Bibliography

Following is a list of books by or about Germans fighting in the American Civil War. If you know of any others, please let the webmaster know. Contact Joe Reinhart at jrein8@yahoo.com


Books of Civil War Letters and Diaries Written by Germans

Bender, Robert Patrick , ed., Like Grass before the Scythe: The Life and Death of Sgt. William Remmel, 121st New York Infantry (Tuscaloosa: Univ. of Alabama Press, 2007).


Byrne, Frank L., and Jean Powers Soman, eds., Your True Marcus: The Civil War Letters of a Jewish Colonel (Kent, O., Kent State Univ. Press, 1985).


Fritsch, Friedrich Otto, and Joseph Tyler Butts. A Gallant Captain of the Civil War being the Record of the Extraordinary Adventures of Frederick Otto, Baron von Fritsch, Compiled from His War Record in Washington and His Private Papers (Bethesda, Maryland: University Publications of America)1992) A Kindle version is available


Goyne, Minetta Altgelt, trans. and ed., Lone Star and Double Eagle: Civil War Letters of a German-Texas Family (N. p.: Texas Christian Univ. Press, 1982).


Haas, Jacob, "This Day We Marched Again" : A Union Soldier's Account of War in Arkansas and the Trans-Mississippi, The Civil War Diary of Jacob Haas; edited by Mark K. Christ (Little Rock, Arkansas : Butler Center Books, 2014).


Hedricks, David T. and Gordon Barry Davis, Jr., eds. I Am Surrounded by Methodists: Diary of John H. W. Stuckenburg, Chaplain of the 145th Pennsylvania (Gettysburg, Pa.: Thomas Publications, 1995).

Hinrichs, Oscar, and Richard Brady Williams.  Stonewall's Prussian Mapmaker: The Journals of Captain Oscar Hinrichs.
(Chapel Hill : University of North Carolina Press, 2014)


Holtmann, Antonius, A Lost American Dream: Civil war Letters (1862–1863) of Immigrant Theodor Heinrich Brandes in Historical Coxtext. Eberhard Reichmann, trans. and ed. of American Edition (Indianapolis: Max Kade German-American Center & Indiana German Heritage Society, 2005).


Horner, John B., Captain John M Sachs: His Long Road Back to Gettysburg (Gettysburg, Pa.: Horner Enterprises, 1994).


Janeski, Paul, comp., A Civil War Soldier’s Last Letters (New York: Vantage Press, 1975).


Kamphoefner,  Walter D.,  and Wolfgang Helbich, eds. and Susan Carter Vogel, trans., Germans in the Civil War: The Letters They Wrote Home (Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 2006).


Lyftgot, Kenneth, ed. Left for Dixie: The Civil War Diary of John Rath (Parkersburg Iowa: Mid-Prairie Books, 1991).



Reinhart, Joseph R., trans. and ed. Two Germans in the Civil War: The Diary of John Daeuble and the Letters of Gottfried Rentschler, 6th Kentucky Infantry (Knoxville: Univ. of Tenn. Press, 2004).


Reinhart, Joseph R., trans. and ed. August Willich’s Gallant Dutchmen: Civil War Letters from the 32nd Indiana Infantry (Kent, Ohio: Kent, State Univ. Press, 2006).


Reinhart, Joseph R., trans. and ed. A German Hurrah: The Civil War Letters of Friedrich Berstch and Wilhelm Stängel, 9th Ohio Infantry (Kent, Ohio: Kent, State Univ. Press, 2010).


Reinhart, Joseph R., trans. and ed. Yankee Dutchmen under Fire: Civil War Letters from the 82nd Illinois Infantry (Kent, Ohio: Kent, State Univ. Press, 2010).


Reiss, Stephen W.  It Takes a Matriarch: 780 Family Letters from 1852 to 1888 including Civil War, Farming in Illinois, Life in St. Louis, Life in Sacramento, Life in the Theater, Wagon Making in Davenport, and the Lost Family Fortune. (Bloomington, IN: Author House, 2009).


Schaller, Frank, Mary W. Schaller, and Martin N. Schaller, Soldering for Glory: The Civil War Letters of Colonel Frank Schaller, Twenty-second Mississippi Infantry (Columbia, S.C.: University of South Carolina Press, 2007).


Scherneckau, August, James E. Potter, and Edith Robbins, Marching with the First Nebraska: A Civil War Diary. (Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 2007).


Schurz, Carl. Speeches, Correspondence and Political Papers of Carl Schurz. Vol. 1. Selected and edited by Frederic Bancroft on behalf of the Carl Schurz Memorial Committee. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1913.


Schurz, Carl. Intimate Letters of Carl Schurz, 1841-1869. Translated and Edited by Joseph Schafer. New York: Da Capo Press, 1970.


Wickesberg, Charles, Civil War Letters of Sergeant Charles Wickesberg (Milwaukee: A. Wickesberg, 1961).


Winkler, William K., ed, Letters of Frederic C. Winkler 1862–1865 (N. p.: William K. Winkler, 1963).


See also Earl J. Hess, ed., A German in the Yankee Fatherland: The Civil War Letters of Henry A. Kircher (Kent, Ohio: Kent State Univ. Press, 1983) for an outstanding collection of letters authored by a soldier born in Illinois of German immigrant parents.

 

 Regimental Histories


Allendorf, Donald, Long Road to Liberty: The Odyssey of a Germans Regiment in the Yankee Army, the 15th Missouri Volunteer Infantry (Kent, Ohio: Kent State Univ. Press, 2006)


Boethel, Paul C., The Big Guns of Fayette (Creuzbaur's Battery or Welhausen's Battery, C. S. A.) (n. p.: no publisher, 1965)


Burhop, R. W., The Twenty Fourth Illinois Infantry Regiment: The Story of a Civil War Regiment ( Tampa, FL: Burhop Associates, 2003).


Burns, William S., and Frank Allen Dennis. Recollections of the 4th Missouri Cavalry (Dayton, Ohio: Morningside, 1988). Written by an Anglo-American in the regiment.


Grebner, Constantin, “We Were the Ninth”: A History of the Ninth Regiment Ohio Volunteer Infantry, April 17, 1861, to June 7, 1864, trans. and ed. Frederic Trautmann (Kent, Ohio: Kent State Univ. Press, 1987)


Martin, David G. 1987. Carl Bornemann's Regiment: The 41st New York Infantry in the Civil War. ([S.l.]: [s.n.], 1987).


Nachtigall, Herrmann, Heinz D. Schwinge, and Karl E. Sundstrom. History of the 75th Regiment, Pa. Vols. (North Riverside, Ill: Willow Press. 1987)

Pula, James S., The Sigel Regiment: The Twenty-sixth Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, 1862–1865 (Campbell, Calif.: Savas Publishing Company, 1998)


Reinhart, Joseph R., A History of the 6th Kentucky Volunteer Infantry

U. S., The Boy's Who Feared No Noise, (Beargrass Press: Louisville, Ky., 2000) Four companies of the 6th Kentucky comprised Germans.


Smith, Jacob. 1910; reprint, Camps and Campaigns of the 107th Regiment Ohio

Volunteer Infantry (Navarre, Ohio: Indian River Graphics, 2000)Authored by an

Anglo-American in the regiment, little included about the Germanness of the

regiment.



Wagner, W., History of the 24th Illinois Volunteer Infantry Regiment (Old Hecker Regiment). (Chicago: publisher not identified, 1911)

Nachtigall, Herrmann, Heinz D. Schwinge, and Karl E. Sundstrom. History of the 75th Regiment, Pa. Vols. (North Riverside, Ill: Willow Press. 1987)


Memoirs


Fout Frederick, Philip Graupner, trans.The Dark Days of the Civil War, 1861–1965: The West Virginia Campaign of 1861, the Antietam and Harper's Ferry Campaign of 1862, The East Tennessee Campaign of 1863, the Atlanta Campaign of 1864 (1904 reprint; Philip Graupner, 2010) 


Hood, Dennis (Compiler), Cynthia Johnson (Editor), Stephen Trobisch, A Civil War Campaign Through Missouri (Boliver, Mo.: Leonard Press, 2012)


Kakuske, Louis F., A Civil War Drama: The Adventures of a Union Soldier in Southern Imprisonment. Herbert P. Kususke, trans. (New York: Carlton Press,1970)


Otto, J. H., Gould, D. & Kennedy, J. B., Memoirs of a Dutch Mudsill: The "War Memories" of John Henry Otto, Captain, Company D, 21st Regiment, Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry  (Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 2004)


Scheibert, J., Hayes, J., & Krick, R. K. Seven Months in the Rebel States during the North American War, 1863. (Tuscaloosa, University of Alabama Press, 2009.


Scheibert, Capt. Justus, A Prussian Observes the Civil War: The Military Studies of Justus Scheibert, trans. and ed. by Frederic Trautmann (Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2001)



Schurz, Carl. The Reminiscences of Carl Schurz. 3 Vols. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, Page & Co., 1917.

 

 

Biographies

Engle, Stephen D.,  Yankee Dutchman: The Life of Franz Sigel  (Fayetteville: Univ. of Arkansas Press, 1993) 


Freitag, Sabine and Steven W. Rowan, Friedrich Hecker: Two Lives for Liberty, (St. Louis, Mo.: St. Louis Mercantile Library, 2006)




Kautz, Lawrence G.  August Valentine Kautz, USA: Biography of a Civil War 


General(Jefferson, N.C.: McFarland & Co., Publishers, 2008).



Quatman, G. William, A Young General and the Fall of Richmond: The Life and Career of Godfrey Weitzel (Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, Feb. 2015)


Trefousse, Hans Louis, Carl Schurz, a Biography . North's Civil War, no. 5. 


(Bronx, NY: Fordham University Press, 1998).



Townsend, Mary Bobbitt,  Yankee Warhorse: A Biography of Maj. Gen. Peter J. Osterhaus (Columbia: Univ. of Missouri Press, 2010)




Other Books


Allendorf, D. (2014). Your Friend, as ever, A. Lincoln: How the Unlikely Friendship of Gustav Koerner and Abraham Lincoln changed America.
(Gretna: Pelican Publishing Company, 2014).


Anderson, Kristen Layne.  Abolitionizing Missouri German Immigrants and Racial Ideology in Nineteenth-Century America. (LSU Press, 2016).


Bailey, Anne J., Invisible Southerners : Ethnicity in the Civil War  (Athens : University of Georgia Press, 2006).

Burton, William L., Melting Pot Soldiers: The Union’s Ethnic Regiments, 2nd ed. (New York: Fordham Univ. Press, 1998)


Cunz, Dieter, The Maryland Germans in the Civil War, (Baltimore: n.p., 1941)


Danuser, Elmer, and Vernon Fricke. "Damn'd Dutch" for the Union: Newspaper Accounts of the Civil War Published by Jacob Graf, Hermanner Volksblatt, Hermann Missouri, 1860 to 1864. Ed. Joyce Schutt et. al. (Gasconade County, Missouri: Gasconade County Historical Society, 2014)

 

Efford, Alison Clark.  German Immigrants, Race, and Citizenship in the Civil War Era (German Historical Institute and Cambridge University Press, 2013).


Engelhart, Tim, Zu den Waffen: Deutsche Emigraten in New Yorker Unionsregimenten während des Amerikanischen Bürgerkrieg 1861–1865 (Zella-Mehlis, Germany:Heinrich Jung Society, 2000)


Honeck, Mischa. We Are the Revolutionists: German-Speaking Immigrants and American Abolitionists after 1848 (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2001). 


Hood, Dennis (Compiler), Cynthia Johnson (Editor), Stephen Trobisch, A Civil War Campaign Through Missouri (Boliber, Mo.: Leonard Press, 2012)


Kaufmann, Wilhelm, The Germans in the American Civil War trans. Steven Rowan, ed. Don Heinrich Tolzmann with Werner D. Mueller and Robert E. Ward, (1911 reprint; Carlisle, Pa.: John Kallmann, Publishers, 1999)

 

Keller, Christian B, Chancellorsville and the Germans: Nativism, Ethnicity and Civil War Memory (New York: Fordham Univ. Press, 2007)


Keller, Christian B. and David L. Valuska, Damn Dutch: Pennsylvania Germans at Gettysburg (Mechanicsburg, Pa.: Stackpole Books, 2004),


Lonn, Ella, Foreigners in the Confederacy (Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press, 1940).

 

Lonn, Ella, Foreigners in the Union Army and Navy (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State Univ. Press, 1951).


Lowry, Thomas P.,  Irish & German Whiskey & Beer: Drinking Patterns in the Civil War  (S.I.: s.n., 2011).


Mehrländer, Andrea, The Germans of Charleston, Richmond and New Orleans during the Civil War Period, 1850-1870: A Study and Research Compendium. (Berlin: De Gruyter, 2011).

 

Oefele, Martin W., German-Speaking Officers in the U. S. Colored Troops, 1863 –1867 (Gainesville: Univ. of Florida Press, 2004)


Peake, Michael, Blood Shed in This War :  Civil War Illustrations by Captain Adolph Metzner, 32nd Indiana  (Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society, 2010).


Schutt, Joyce, et. al. "Damned Dutch" for the Union: Newspaper Accounts of the Civil War Published by Jacob Graf, Hermanner Volksblatt, Hermann, Missouru, 1860–1864 (Gasconade County Missouri, Gasconade County Historical Society, 2014)

Siemering, A., William Paul Burrier, Helen Dietert, and Ronnie Pue. August Siemering's Die Deutschen in Texas waehrend des Buergerkrieges :The Germans in Texas during the Civil War (Plantation, Florida: Llumina Press, 2013)


Tafel, Gustav, and Don Heinrich Tolzmann.  The Cincinnati Germans in the Civil War  (Milford, Ohio: Little Miami Pub. Co., 2010).


(Kaufmann, Lonn, and Burton, must be used with caution because they are outdated, filiopietistic, tend to use ethnic stereotypes, or rely mainly on other secondary sources. As pointed out by Keller and Valuska: “Both Lonn and Burton fail to treat Civil War-era Germans as that disunified, multifaceted conglomeration of people they were; they tend to view Germans largely as a bloc and play down the differences among them. This approach is  . . . inaccurate.” Lonn and Burton also maintained that the Civil War served to Americanize its German participants without providing supporting evidence. Burton also incorrectly concluded that there was little difference between the Germans in blue and their Anglo-American comrades and that German regiments lost their ethnic character as the war progressed. Despite their faults these studies do contain much useful information.)


Selected Articles


Anderson, David L. and Wilhelm Möbus, "'The Life of "Wilhelm Yank': Letters from a German Soldier in the Civil War"  Michigan Historical Review Vol. 16, No. 1 (Spring, 1990): 73-93.


Anderson, Kristen L., "German Americans, African Americans, and the Republican Party in St. Louis, 1865-1872, "Journal of American Ethnic History, Vol. 28, No. 1, Racial Divides (Fall 2008): pp. 34-51.


Baensch, Emil and Herman Salomon, "Civil War Diary of Herman Salomon,"
The Wisconsin Magazine of History . Vol. 10, No. 2 (Dec., 1926): pp. 205-210


Baldwin, Thomas P. “The Public Image of Germans in Louisville and in Jefferson County, Kentucky, 1840-72.” Yearbook of German-American Studies 29 (1994): 83-90.


Bell, Michael Everette,"Regional Identity in the Antebellum South: How German Immigrants Became "Good" Charlestonians," South Carolina Historical Magazine Vol. 100, No. 1 (Jan., 1999): 9-28


Benjaminson, Eric, "A Regiment of Immigrants: The 82nd Illinois Volunteer Infantry and the Letters of Captain Rudolph Mueller," in Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society (1998-), Vol. 94, No. 2 (Summer, 2001), pp. 137-180


Buenger, Walter L. , "Secession and the Texas German Community: Editor Lindheimer vs. Editor Flake," The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Vol. 82, No. 4 (Apr., 1979): pp. 379-402


Dister, Cunz, “The Maryland Germans in the Civil War”, in Maryland Historical Magazine, XXXVI (1941): 394–419.


Dluger, Mark. “The 82nd Illinois Volunteer Regiment—The Beginning” in The Delano 5, no. 2 (Spring/Summer 2003): 1–12;


Dunkelman, Mark H. “Hardtack and Sauerkraut Stew: Ethnic Tensions in the 154th New York Volunteers, Eleventh Corps, During the Civil War.” Yearbook of German- American Studies 36 (2001): 69-90.


Dorpalen, Andreas, "The German Element and the Issues of the Civil War"
Mississippi Valley Historical Review, Vol. 29, No. 1 (Jun., 1942),: 55-76.


Dyer, Brainerd, "Francis Lieber and the American Civil War," Huntington Library Quarterly Vol. 2, No. 4 (Jul., 1939): 449-465


Efford, Alison Clark, “The Appeal of Racial Neutrality in the Civil War–Era North: German Americans and the Democratic New Departures,” Journal of the Civil War Era Vol. 5, No. 1 (March 2015): 68–96.


Engle, Stephen D, "Yankee Dutchmen: Germans, the Union, and the Construction of Wartime Identity" in ( Susannah J. Ural, Civil War Citizens:

Race, Ethnicity, and Identity in America's Bloodiest Conflict. (New York:

New York University Press, 2010): 11–55.


Graham, David, "A Fight for a Principle: The 24th Illinois Volunteer Infantry Regiment," in Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, Vol. 104, No. 1/2 Spring/Summer 2011. pp. 38–55.


Hess, Earl J., "The Obscurity of August Mersy: A German-American in the Civil War," in Illinois Historical Journal, Vol. 79, No. 2 (Summer, 1986), pp. 127-138.


Hess, Earl J., "Osterhaus in Missouri: a Study  of German American Loyalty," in Missouri Historical Review, 78 (January 1984): 144–157.


Hess, Earl J.,"The 12th Missouri Infantry: A Socio-Military Profile of a Union Regiment, Missouri Historical Review 76 (October 1981): 60–61.


Hess, Earl J., "Sigel's Resignation: A Study in German Americanism and the Civil War," Civil War History 26, no. 1(1980) : 5–17.


Hofmann, Annette R., "The Turner Loyalty for Their New Home Country: Their Engagement in the American Civil War," International Journal of the History of Sport 12 (December 1995) pages??


Hofmann, Annette R.,"One Hundred and Fifty Years of Loyalty: The Turner Movement in the United States," Yearbook of German-American Studies 34 (1999): Pages??


Honeck, Mischa, “Men of Principle: Gender and the German American War for the Union,” Journal of the Civil War Era Vol. 5, No. 1 (March 2015): 38–67.



Kamphoefner, Walter D., "New Perspectives on Texas Germans" in The Fate of Texas: The Civil War and the Lone Star State" edited by Charles D. Grear (Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 2008), 105–119.


Kamphoefner, Walter D., "New Perspectives on Texas Germans and the Confederacy," The Southwestern Historical Quarterly, Vol. 102, No. 4 (Apr., 1999), pp. 440-455.


Kamphoefner, Walter D., "German-Americans and Civil War Politics: A Reconsideration of the Ethnocultural Thesis," in Civil War History, 37, No. 3 (1991): 232–4.


Kamphoefner, Walter D., "Missouri Germans and the Cause of Union and Freedom" in Missouri Historical Review Vol. 106, No 3 (April 2012): 115–136. 


Kamphoefner, Walter D., "Contents and Context," Journal of American Ethnic History, Vol. 28, No. 1, Racial Divides (Fall 2008): pp. 70-76.

Keller, Christian B., "New Perspectives in Civil War Ethnic History and Their Implications for Twenty-First Century Scholarship" in Slap, Andrew L., and Michael Thomas Smith, This Distracted and Anarchical People: New Answers for Old Questions about the Civil War-era North. (New York: Fordham University Press, 2013) 


Keller, Christain B., "Flying Dutchmen and Drunken Irishmen: The Myths and Realities of Ethnic Civil War Soldiers."  The Journal of Military History 73 (January 2009): 117-145.


Keller, Christian B., "Pennsylvania and Virginia Germans during the Civil War: A Brief History and Comparative Analysis," in The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 109, No. 1 (2001): pp. 37-86


Keller, Christian B., " 'All We Ask Is Justice' : German-American Reactions to the Battle of Chancellorsville." Yearbook of German-American Studies 41 (2006): 1–26.


“The Reaction of Eastern Pennsylvania’s German Press to the Secession Crisis: Compromise or Conflict?” Yearbook of German-American Studies 34 (1999):35-62.
 


Krause, Bonnie J., “German Americans in the St. Louis Region 1840–1860,” Missouri Historical Review 83 (April 1989): 301.


Miller, C. Eugene, "The Contribution of German Immigrants to the Union Cause in Kentucky," Filson Club Historical Quarterly 64 (Oct. 1990): 462–478.


Raphelson, Alfred C., "Alexander Schimmelfennig: A German-American Campaigner in the Civil War," The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, No. 87, No. 2 (April 1963): 156–81.



Rauchle, Bob Cyrus, "The Political Life of the Germans in Memphis, 1848-1880,"
Tennessee Historical Quarterly,  Vol. 27, No. 2 (Summer 1968): pp. 165-175.


Romansky, Thaddeus, "This Large Class of Our Soldiers: Self-Government, Deutschtum, and German-American Associationalism in the Mutiny of the 20th New York Infantry Regiment" Yearbook of German-American Studies Volume 49 (2014): pp. 115–140.


Strickland, Jeffrey, "How the Germans Became White Southerners: German Immigrants and African Americans in Charleston, South Carolina, 1860-1880,"
in Journal of American Ethnic History, Vol. 28, No. 1, Racial Divides (Fall 2008): pp. 52-69.



Towsend, Mary Bobbit,  "The Promotions of General Peter J. Osrerhaus and the Two-Edged Sword of German Ethnicity," in Missouri Historical Review, Vol. 106., No. 3 (April 2012).



Trefousse, Hans L. “Carl Schurz and the Politics of Identity.” Yearbook of German-American Studies 31 (1996):1-12.



Trefousse, Hans L., “Carl Schurz: Myth and Reality.” Yearbook of German-American Studies 19 (1984):1-16.


Weddle, Kevin J. “Ethnic Discrimination in Minnesota Volunteer Regiments During the Civil War.” Civil War History 35, no. 3 (1989): 239-259.

Zimmerman, Andrew, “From the Rhine to the Mississippi: Property, Democracy, and Socialism in the American Civil War,” Journal of the Civil War Era Vol. 5, No. 1 (March 2015): 3–37.

Dissertations and Theses

Archer, Robert Henry. “Franz Sigel, Major General U. S. V.” M.A. Thesis, Kent State University, 1950.


Bodger, John Charles, Jr., "The Immigrant Press and the Union Army," (Ph. D. diss. Columbia University, 1951


Dluger, Marc A. "A Regimental Community: The Men Of The 82nd Illinois Infantry Before, During, And After The American Civil War."   Ph.D. diss., Loyola University Chicago, 2009.


Dluger, Marc A., "Fighting for the Cause: The 82nd Illinois Infantry Regiment at the Battle of Gettysburg," M.A. Thesis, Roosevelt University, 2003.


Keller, Christian B. “Germans in Civil War-Era Pennsylvania: Ethnic Identity and the Problem of Americanization.” Ph.D. diss., Pennsylvania State University, 2001.


Ruscha, Adam Richard, "Fighting Mit Sigel" or "Running With Howard": Attitudes towards German-Americans in the Civil war." M. A. Thesis, Miami University. 2007.







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